# Physics ( Ph.D. )

### 1. Training/Research Orientation

- Theoretical Physics
- Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Astrophysics and Cosmology

### 2. Program Duration and Credit

Three years generally, the maximum school years are no longer than 7 years (including the extension time).

20 credits of courses in total, at least 12 credits of academic courses.

### 3. Core Courses and Introduction

**Standard Model**

Learn the history of the standard model (SM), study standard model theory, understand the unification of the three kinds of interactions, and understand that the standard model is recognized as an effective theory in a certain energy range. Manage to study physics in the frame of the standard model.

The standard model is the most successful theory in the history of the modern physics. There are four basic interactions in universe: the gravitational interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the strong interaction and the weak interaction. SM unifies the electromagnetic interaction, the strong interaction and the weak interaction. SM is an effective theory in a certain energy range. It is thought that there is a more basic theory beyond SM in higher energy scale where the four basic interactions could be unified.

**Condensed Matter Theory**

Condensed matter physics is a branch of the physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter. The course requires the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics.

The most familiar condensed phases are solids and liquids, while more exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at low temperature, the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on atomic lattices, and the Bose–Einstein condensate found in cold atomic systems. The study of condensed matter physics involves measuring various material properties via experiments along with the use of some techniques of theoretical physics to develop mathematical models that help in understanding physical behavior.

**Theoretical Astrophysics**

Topics studied by theoretical astrophysicists include: stellar dynamics and evolution; galaxy formation and evolution; magnetic hydrodynamics; large-scale structure of matter in the universe; origin of cosmic rays; general relativity and physical cosmology, including the cosmology and astroparticle physics. Astrophysical relativity serves as a tool to gauge the properties of large scale structures for which gravitation plays a significant role in physical phenomena investigated and as the basis for black hole (astro)physics and the study of gravitational waves.

**B Meson Physics**

B mesons are mesons composed of a bottom anti-quark and either an up, down, strange or charm quark. Each B meson has an antiparticle that is composed of a bottom quark and either an up, down, strange or charm anti-quark respectively.

B Meson Physics is a subject in Flavor Physics which is very important for physicists to understand the world. It is an important probe for exploring the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Various uncommon decay paths of the B mesons are sensitive to physics processes beyond the standard model. Measuring these rare branching fractions sets limits on new physics.

The course helps graduates understand QCD and try to find new physics beyond the SM.

**Hadron Physics**

Hadron is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force. Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons, made of three quarks, and mesons, made of one quark and one antiquark. Quarks are elementary particles. The quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks.

Hadrons have excited states known as resonances. Each ground state hadron may have several excited states; several hundreds of resonances have been observed in particle physics experiments. Resonances decay extremely quickly via the strong nuclear force.

The course helps graduates understand the structure and properties of hardons and try to find exotic states in hadron spectroscopy.

### 4. Supervisors

Zhenjun Xiao, Jialun Ping, Peiqing Tong, Yongchun Tao, Lifa Zhang, Dajian Wu, Qirong Yuan, Weihao Bian.